Continuum = 1. A set of things on a scale which have a particular characteristic to varying degrees. For example, ‘these various complaints are part of a continuum of ill-health’. 2. A continuous series of closely related events. For example, ‘responses to stress from mild to severe on the continuum’.
A continuum may show, in diagrammatic form, an otherwise complex series of events and, ultimately, aid understanding. Two examples, as applied to dog training, are shown below. Others could include shyness, aggression, intelligence, personality/traits.
Pavlovian conditioning may variously be known as ‘reflexive conditioning’, ‘respondent conditioning’ or, more usually, ‘classical conditioning’.
One of the most common problems I witness, and indeed encounter as a dog trainer, is pulling on lead. Ironic that this is probably one of the easiest issues to deal with. However, combine this with lunging and aggression, it’s a very different story! The usual reaction of the owner/handler is to punish the dog with a lead jerk in an attempt to pull the dog back. Let’s ‘think dog’ here. The dog finds it self rewarding to pull and has taught himself that if he pulls he gets to his destination (sooner or later). It’s a self fulfilling prophesy. He does not have the cognitive ability to think it through; ‘if I stop pulling, I avoid the lead jerk’. The jerk becomes secondary, a mere inconvenience and he learns to deal with it. In a worst case scenario, he looks upon the handler as a challenge and/or someone to be avoided, leading ultimately to a deterioration in the dog/human relationship!
Firstly: simple pulling. Suffice to say there are as many solutions as there are dogs – there is not a one-size-fits-all solution and that we should teach what IS required rather than what IS NOT required. It’s easier to teach a positive rather than a negative! There may be one of many underlying causes, for example, poor or no training, poor leadership, lack of communication (encourage the dog to ‘check in’ with eye contact and a reward every few yards, all the time talking to him), lack of empathy, relationship breakdown; a plethora of reasons. The point here is that often we aim to treat the symptom rather than the cause. Whilst not wanting to dampen the dog’s enthusiasm, we can, without harshness, teach the dog that pulling achieves the opposite – a walk home! Ironically, the worst time to train for walking correctly is not when on an exercise walk, but on a shorter, training walk within range of home.
There are many Youtube videos showing this. Alas, there are also many awful videos. I would suggest Zak George, Victoria Stilwell, Chirag Patel, Steve Mann, Nando Brown and Ian Dunbar. Some of Ian’s videos, however, go way back and may be somewhat dated – draw your own conclusions. If it looks or feels wrong then it IS wrong!
Secondly: all this becomes serious when pulling culminates in lunging and aggression. Here we must ABSOLUTELY understand the cause so we may treat this rather than the symptom – lunging. We must train for and encourage an alternative and correct behaviour. The aggression may be fear based, stress/anxiety related, territorial or dominance. Each must be addressed accordingly through desensitisation and counter conditioning ideally by a professional, impartial behaviourist.
A conundrum faced by the lay-psychologist is the difference between temperament, personality and behaviour. In the dog training world behaviour is much discussed, temperament sometimes, and personality rarely. Temperament is inherited – it is something we HAVE and can do little to change. For example a person – or dog – may be described as a socialite or a loner. Personality we acquire with age and is a combination of one’s experiences, education, socialisation, culture, and to an extent, temperament. Behaviour, on the other hand, is something we DO – we CAN change this in most cases, though animals (including humans) may find this challenging due to, for example, heritable traits, poor role modelling, poor training, lack of mental stimulation, bad experiences including abuse or received aggression, poor health, stress and anxiety, poor diet, mindset/lack of motivation and/or encouragement/incentive, surroundings and the environment, change of routine, lack of exercise, poor housing/kenneling, the weather; the list is almost endless!
Possibly the most important trait in the family dog, but potentially the most difficult to breed for, is temperament. The adjectives ‘character’ or ‘personality’ (as discussed) also come to mind but these are perhaps more subjective. They may imply a level of consciousness more appropriate to humans, primates, elephants, dolphins and others! Dogs are, however, sentient beings with a range of emotions and sensitivity. Breeding for temperament is paramount when later training for assistance dogs, be these dogs for the blind, hearing assistance dogs, police dogs, search and rescue dogs, explosive and drug detection dogs, herding dogs and so forth. Companionship however – if that’s what we are looking for – is not as clearly defined! Due to the intermingling and coupling of genes of different content from both parents, not all dogs, even from the same litter, will attain the required standard. They are all individuals. Breeding for temperament or behaviour is far more complex genetically than breeding for looks as there are many more genes involved and do not code readily for temperament. Because of this, there is no chance that the same combination will occur twice. Selecting the top pedigree, therefore, is essential in this scenario. Notwithstanding, the way we train and treat our dogs will also have a profound and lasting effect on their temperament and behaviour.
The American cynologist Clarence Pfaffenberger, a respected figure in the mid 1940s in the training of assistance dogs for the blind, confirmed that temperament traits, including the willingness to work with humans, are carried genetically (The Intelligence of Dogs – Coren, 1994). He further concluded that temperament was not enough and that this, combined with ‘intelligence’, was paramount. Measuring intelligence in dogs and the ability to problem solve is another subjective and moot point. To measure this, we need to compare against something else. Do we compare with humans, a primate or another dog? IQ tests have been designed for dogs but what exactly does this prove? According to Pfaffenberger a more appropriate term would be ‘ability’, but let’s not forget also ‘aptitude’ or ‘inclination’!
Dogs live in the moment, with no concept of the future (McGrath, 1998). Their short term memory is thought to be a matter of minutes – though they do appear to remember a bad experience from long ago. They do not possess the cognitive ability to acknowledge the threat of a bad outcome for unwanted behaviour although MAY learn – or more importantly may NOT learn – from the repeated experience of bad (and good) outcomes. This could be, for example, single or multiple punishers including verbal/physical threats or actual abuse, frustration due to the withholding of a treat or other reward, negative reinforcement, for example, the removal of pain (as with a chock chain), release from confinement etc. However, all the dog learns potentially is how to cope with and manage the threat and avoid the perpetrator rather than learn the desired behaviour, resulting potentially in an unhappy and unbalanced dog able to ‘snap’ at any time. ‘Leash pulling’ is an example. Some handlers, and alas trainers, advocate ‘correction’ by jerking the leash. If this punishment method worked, why do we see the behaviour being repeated over and over? Teach the dog what IS required rather than what is NOT required!
Have you noticed that daily and whole life events tend to happen in groups of three. For example we get up, go to work and go to bed. To aid homeostasis and bodily rhythm, a twenty four hour period is divided into three groups of 8 hours rather than two groups of 12 hours. A clock face is divided into 12 segments, 12 being divisible by 3 and not by 10 as our EU counterparts may have us believe! Our lives are divided into childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Space is three dimensional. There are three point on a plane. Buses come along in threes as trailing buses tend to catch up with the leader which is doing all the work picking up customers!
We talk about dog trainers, school teachers and driving instructors. Are the three descriptions interchangeable? Well in theory, yes, but conventionally, no. Now let’s get serious and on with dog training! Is the dog a pack animal? It all depends on our definition of the word ‘pack’ – of which there are (you’ve guessed it) three. These vary depending on the context. For example, ‘an unruly group’, ‘a family’ or ‘a pack of cards’. Of course our pet dog belongs to the family, or should that be pack?
The ABC of dog training. ABC = Antecedent, Behaviour, Consequence. For example cue ‘sit’, the dog offers the desired behaviour, in turn we offer a marker, reward or both depending on the level of training. In the early stages A and B are invariably reversed – BAC – as the dog has no comprehension of the word ‘sit’. We wait for the behaviour to occur naturally or we lure the dog into position BEFORE cueing and rewarding. Victoria Stilwell shows this eloquently in this Youtube video……… https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIdKdba_Wmo&t=7s
The Three ‘Ds’. The three Ds = Duration, Distance, Distractions. Once we have our dog in the sit position we then ask for ‘down/stay’. It’s important to set the dog up to succeed so initially this may only be for a couple of seconds before releasing. Duration is built up incrementally to maybe a couple of minutes. We then increase distance by walking away from and around the dog. When this is reliable we can then increase the level of distractions from the living room to the garden, working up to the great outdoors. Zak George demonstrates this in his various Youtube videos.
The Three ‘Es’. The three Es = Encouragement, Enthusiasm, Empathy. An area of great importance. Mammals, birds and other animals learn best in a positive environment with plenty of encouragement from their trainer/mentor. For example, if we are told often enough that we are useless or stupid, eventually we will believe it. This is known as ‘learned helplessness’ and can have a profound effect on a vulnerable individual. Imagine the harm done if we add physical abuse! A rule of thumb is to ignore the bad stuff (unless unsafe to do so) and praise/reward the good stuff. Also to keep formal training sessions short, relevant and enthusiastic. Empathy helps if we can place ourselves in the position of our trainee.
The Three ‘Ps’. The three Ps = Practise, Patience, Persistence. Practise for both trainer and dog is paramount. No two dogs are the same and there are as many scenarios as their are dogs! No two (or three) outcomes will be the same – at least in the early stages. It goes without saying that we must at all times exercise patience and persistence.
Whatever the circumstances we always set our dog up for success. In the early stages of training for example, we do not recall our puppy when he is running away from us. What he will actually learn is that ‘come here’ means ‘run away’. We should, and must, (I almost forgot to mention TheThree Cs) communicate, be consistent and:- be cheerful 1, 2, 3!
Dogs are not as clever as humans think. An Exeter University team examined 300 studies on animal intelligence, and concluded that whilst dogs have an unusual skill set, they are not inherently smarter than other animals. For example, sheep are just as good at distinguishing humans by their faces; sea otters are better than dogs with tools; and pigeons are better at remembering events. Even dogs’ renowned olfactory powers are not that special: pigs have an equally sensitive sense of smell.
The Miniature American Shepherd Dog (MAS) is a comparatively new breed directly descended from the Australian Shepherd Dog though purists will argue that it a separate breed altogether. There are two schools of thought regarding its origins and history. One idea is that the “Aussie” originated as a herding dog in the Basque region of Spain when, in the early 1800s, shepherds and their dogs, emigrated to Australia. In the mid to late 1800s it is possible that the Basques then took their dogs to the west coast of America to work the cattle ranches. The other thought is that they – or a similar dog – entered North America, from Europe, Asia and Siberia via the Bering land bridge 10,000 to 15,000 years ago during the Mesolithic Age. Here they would presumably cross breed with the grey wolf (Canis lupus).
The name “Aussie” may, then, be derived from the sheep they herded, imported from Australia, along with other herding dogs and shepherds to meet the demand for mutton and wool during the California Gold Rush of 1848 and the later Civil War. The Aussie as a purebred was first registered in 1957 by the National Stock Dog Registry (NSDR) until the Australian Shepherd Club of America (ASCA) took this over in 1971 until 1990.
Aussies came to the public’s attention in the 1950s and early 1960s when Jay Sisler performed at rodeos throughout the United States. In 1968 a certain Doris Cordova began a breeding program in California to produce a small breed founded with Australian Shepherd stock. In the spring of 1982 a letter written by Doris Cordova appeared in the National Stock Dog Magazine explaining her intentions. At this time the breed was first registered with the National Stock Dog Registry as the Miniature Australian Shepherd. Later in the 1980s enthusiasts formed two clubs, the North American Miniature Australian Shepherd Club of the USA and the Miniature Australian Shepherd Association – both now defunct – as they felt that the ASCA did not place enough emphasis on breed standards!
More recently selective breeding over many generations has fine tuned the attributes of the Australian Shepherd. These include high intelligence with low aggression and low reactivity (but high when seeing something to chase!). Also enthusiasm, independence of thought but with obedience, stamina, speed and athleticism, toughness, guarding ability and, not forgetting, the instinct to herd. The breed standard is now maintained by the United States Australian Shepherd Association (USASA) founded in 1990.
The Miniature Australian Shepherd Club of the USA (MASCUSA) was also founded in 1990. A year later the American Kennel Club (AKC) officially recognised the Australian Shepherd as a breed. However, the USASA was of the opinion that the Australian Shepherd and the Miniature Australian Shepherd are different breeds as there is only one breed standard, to the dismay of some. Perverse when considering there are other breeds of more than one size, for example the Schnauzer and Poodle. Through negotiations it was decided to allow the Minis to gain recognition with the AKC but under a new name. After a ballot of members of MASCUSA it was decided to rename the breed as the Miniature American Shepherd. Thus, in 2011 the original club was renamed the Miniature American Shepherd Club of the USA (MASCUSA) – the same acronym. At the same time the new MASCUSA was selected by the AKC as the parent club of the Miniature American Shepherd.
A chequered history indeed. Will things settle down? Unlikely as this is still a relatively new and unknown breed. In 2012 the AKC granted the breed Foundation Stock Service status allowing it to continue to develop. Full breed recognition in the US came in July 2015. Just this year the breed was officially recognised by certain Scandinavian countries. In the UK the United Kingdom Miniature American Shepherd Club (UKMASC) applied successfully to represent the breed and is now an affiliation of MASCUSA. A more recent club is the Miniature American Shepherd Club of Great Britain (MASCGB). Herding (sheep and fowl) will surely be developed as a sport along with agility, flyball, frisbee and others.
Most dogs born in the UK are registered with the AKC. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) now recognise the breed but as yet the Kennel Club do not! At least the KC is willing to register them as such on the Activities Register, so that’s a start! An active dog it is, as already mentioned. It excels at agility and wins many awards with its torpedo like appearance in the ring!
Regarding temperament characteristics, as briefly mentioned above for the Aussie, the breed is a highly active working dog, requiring early socialisation with humans (including children AND men!) and other animals; also a focus in life to avoid behavioural problems later. S/he makes a fantastic family pet and is loyal to his owner/s with a strong guardian instinct. He is highly trainable with a strong work ethic which he carries out with diligence and enthusiasm. His sensitive nature makes him wary, but not shy, of strangers making him an excellent therapy dog. Behaviourally and temperamentally, therefore, this breed is almost impossible to fault; or are we biased?
Cast back to 1998. First Quench Retailing was formed by the merger of the Allied Domecq owned Victoria Wine and the Whitbread owned Threshers. This brought together the 1,470 Threshers, Drinks Cabin, WineRack, Bottoms Up and Huttons shops with around 1,500 Victoria Wine, WineCellar, Haddows, Martha’s Vineyard (see below) and The Firkin branches.
As a sociologist this holds a fascination for me from a social history point of view. At the time of the merger, the company employed around 20,000 people, with its head office in Welwyn Garden City, and claimed to account for 13% of the UK take home drinks market – Tesco, in comparison, claimed around 14%.
In 2000 the company was purchased by the Japanese private equity firm Nomura Holdings for £225m. Terra Firma Capital Partners then purchased the company in April 2002 – for an undisclosed sum! A chequered few years ensued with the selling off of some Threshers branches to franchisees and the conversion of others to convenience stores. The company went into administration in 2009 and was subsequently purchased by Midlands based Dave’s Discount Group. This company now has over 47,000 retail branches though the above mentioned brands appear to have been dropped!
In 1997, Victoria Wine, in a last ditch attempt, launched its first (and only) superstore to rival the supermarkets, Majestic Wine Warehouse, Wizard Wines and others. This involved the re-launch of Martha’s Vineyard, a 5,000 sq. ft. warehouse in New Barnet, Hertfordshire along with an ‘all bells and whistles’ shop in London’s Oxford Street. Michael Hammond, the then managing director, however was clutching at straws offering “ample free parking, keen prices, deliveries, wine tastings and knowledgeable staff”, a model already established by the competition!
Of course there were many other off-licence chains and independent wine merchants so far not mentioned. Let’s not forget Argyll Stores, Ashe and Nephew, Augustus Barnett, Cullens, Arthur Cooper, Roberts, Davisons, Peter Dominic, Fine Fare, Gough Brothers, Lennons, Oddbins, Arthur Rackham and Unwins. Also, Dolamore, H Allen Smith, Thomas Baty (Liverpool), Buckinghams, Christopher & Co., Greens, John Harvey, The Hungerford Wine Company, Quellyn Roberts (Chester), La Reserve, Henry Townsend, Willoughby’s (Manchester). All these are now confined to history but at the time were forces to be reckoned with. Some moved on however, such as The Wine Society, Tanners, Berry Bros & Rudd, Adnams, Farr Vintners, Majestic Wine Warehouse, Naked Wines, Laithwaites (formerly Bordeaux Direct), Ex-Cellar and Liquorbin. Waitrose – trading as Waitrose Cellar – has also helped fill the gap with an extensive range of quality wines, spirits, sherry, port, beers and lagers, madeira, masala and much more beside. Indeed, they were certainly instrumental, along with other supermarkets, in the gap appearing in the first place!
How Victoria Wine started in 1865 and prospered as the first choice wine merchant of the ordinary person, until its demise at end of the 20th century, will be discussed in the next blog.
Some will argue that the COVID-19 crisis was a disaster waiting to happen and that it is nature’s way of revenge for mans’ inhumanity to other animals and disregard for the environment generally! The planet cannot sustain the current exponential population growth indefinitely though projections are that the rate of growth will level by 2100. The bubonic plague of 1347, for example, killed an estimated 475 million people worldwide and the population took some 200 years to recover.
When talking about the environment, Greta Thunberg states, “Some people say we are not doing enough to fight climate change. This is not true because to ‘not be doing enough’ means you have to be doing SOMETHING. In reality we are doing NOTHING. The politicians say it is EVERYONE’S fault. This means no one can be blamed or held accountable and is an easy way to pass the problem on to someone else”
The sometimes oppressive heat and the slower pace of life in Almeria, southern Spain, is typical of Europe’s only desert. The ‘Spaghetti Westerns’ were shot here in the early ’70s for good reason. Horse culture is still prevalent! The Mediterranean coast invariably suffers from drought at this time of the year and relies heavily upon piped water from the River Ebro and other parts of the wetter north coast. This is thanks to the PHN running into billions of euros, largely as the result of EU subsidy!
The 9,500 year old remains of a dog found on the tiny island of Zhakhov, northern Siberia, are remarkably similar to living dogs in Greenland, genome sequencing has revealed. The discovery shows that people bred dogs for pulling sleds more than 10,000 years ago.
Mikkel Sindling and his team from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, excavated the remains from an ancient human settlement, along with other less well preserved dogs alongside what look like dog sleds. “We thought it would be a primitive dog, but it’s a long way down the path to domestication – that was quite sensational”, says Sindling.
His team sequenced the remains, along with a 33,000 year old Siberian wolf and 10 living sled dogs from different parts of Greenland, and compared their genomes with each other as well as other dog and wolf genomes. The results show that modern sled dogs in Greenland, who’s ancestors were taken there by Inuit people around 850 years ago, are more closely related to the Zhakhov remains than any other kinds of dogs or wolves. The genomes also show that sled dogs have not acquired any DNA from wolves in the past 9,500 years. Sindling adds “It’s largely the same dog doing the same job”.